♥ [̲̅ə̲̅٨̲̅٥̲̅٦̲̅]ution

Happy Valentine’s Day, Tumblr friends. 

Spread a whole lotta love out there. :)

‎74,000 years ago Mount Toba, a volcano in South East Asia erupted in spectacular fashion, the biggest explosion in the last two million years. Because of its magnitude it is classed as a supervolcanic eruption.

The volcano spewed enough sulphur into the atmosphere to lower world temperatures by several degrees and enough molten rock to cover an area the size of Britain to a depth of 10 metres.

Over the next 40,000 years they were slowly driven out, probably by a combination of climate change and the effects of being out-competed for scarce food…

Homo sapiens outcompete another rival human, Neanderthals, who died out about 30,000 years ago as the Ice Age limited available food supplies. Climate change: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=141750014898 “Even 100,000 years ago, we’ve still got several human species on Earth and that’s strange for us. We’re the only survivors of all of those great evolutionary experiments in how to be human,” homo floresiensis, also known as “Hobbits”, survived until around 12,000 years ago. And then they went, leaving us as the last human species on the planet. Events of recent 2500 years ago. Volcanos & humans: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=332172859898

Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed

I don’t think the brain came in the Darwinian manner. In fact, it is disprovable. Simple mechanism can’t yield the brain. I think the basic elements of the universe are simple. Life force is a primitive element of the universe and it obeys certain laws of action. These laws are not simple, and they are not mechanical.

— Gödel

monolithical:

When we put satellites around the planet Darwinian nature ended. The earth became an artform subject to the same programming as media networks and their environments. The entire evolutionary process shifted, at the moment of Sputnik, from biology to technology. Evolution became not an involuntary response of organisms to new conditions, but part of the consensus of human consciousness. - McLuhan

monolithical:

When we put satellites around the planet Darwinian nature ended. The earth became an artform subject to the same programming as media networks and their environments. The entire evolutionary process shifted, at the moment of Sputnik, from biology to technology. Evolution became not an involuntary response of organisms to new conditions, but part of the consensus of human consciousness. - McLuhan

(via )

Altruistic punishment

I learned a new term tonight: Altruistic punishment.

This is when someone will give up something in order to see someone else punished; or, that individuals punish, although the punishment is costly for them and yields no material gain.

There is speculation in the worlds of evolutionary theory, that altruistic punishment is the reason for cooperation with humans who are non-kin. To wit:

"We show that cooperation flourishes if altruistic punishment is possible, and breaks down if it is ruled out. The evidence indicates that negative emotions towards defectors are the proximate mechanism behind altruistic punishment. These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment."